The Auto-kinetics of Cell Physiology
The Auto-kinetics of Cell Physiology
In the observations of planetary motions, such as the Earth orbits the Sun and the Moon orbits the Earth, we can find out that they can keep in motion for many billions of years. Can human beings make our body work to live longer as follows planets in the sky?
The answer is yes and the cells of human body indeed follow the principles of planetary motions. Just as Newton states in his first law, also referred as the law of inertia: an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion. The secret of cell kinetics is the same as planetary motions, but still not be discovered in the modern medical science. Now we unravel the secrets to help human beings to reach the true health.
The cells of human body use oxygen to generate electricity
First of all, we will understand how the cells of human body to generate electricity.
In the nature, there are several living creatures can generate electricity, such as electric eel(electrophorus electricus) and malapterurus electricus. Furthermore, scientists are strongly interested in some specific microbes to produce electricity, especially in the research of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The special microbes decompose carbon-hydrogen organic compounds (such as glucose) into CO2, protons and electrons. Then we can use oxygen to drive electron flux to generate electricity. As shown in Fig. 1, most MFCs setup a wire to connect anode and cathode, and a membrane to separate the compartments of the anode and the cathode. The input of anode is the CH organic compounds and the input of cathode is oxygen. CH organic compounds are divided into CO2, protons and electrons by the microbes, then use oxygen in the cathode to pull electron flux to generate electric power. The charge balance of the system is compensated by proton movement across the ionic membrane. Finally, the gathering of oxygen, electron, and the proton will react into water in the cathode.
[Fig. 1: The mechanism of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) ]
Once we understand the process of producing electricity in MFCs, we would understand the same process of producing electricity in the mitochondrion of human body.
[The cell of human body and the mitochondrion]
[Fig.2: Electron transport chain is electricity generation circuit in mitochondrion.]
As shown in Fig. 2, the mitochondrion has electron transport chain for moving electron flux. And there is inner membrane which separates compartments between matrix and intermembrane space, and there are complex I, III, and IV to act as pathway for moving protons across the inner membrane. The cell of body will convert glucose into NADH and FADH2 (CH-bond compounds) as electron donors to provide electrons. Note that oxygen is acted as electron acceptor to pull electrons to move along "electron transport chain". The move of electron would produce electricity and electric power enable complex I, III, IV to pump protons across the inner membrane to create the membrane potential gradient. Finally, the potential gradient across the inner membrane would drive ATP synthase to produce ATP as follows.
ADP + Pi + Energy → ATP
where Pi is phosphate and energy comes from the proton moving by proton gradient.
[ Fig. 3 : ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) vs. ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) ]
In short, we eat foods as fuels and foods are converted into CH-bond compounds for donating electrons. Then the cells of human body use oxygen to pull electron flux to produce electricity and store electric power into ATP. Finally, the cells use ATP as "energy currency" to drive the most biochemical reactions all over the body.
Here we must emphasize that oxygen acts as electron acceptor and pulls electron movement. Lack of oxygen means the loss of power to transfer electrons along electron transport chain, and loss of power to pump protons across the inner membrane, finally the cells of human body will loss ATP (energy) and cannot work properly and stably.
Lack of oxygen still raises another problems. Once electrons lose driven force from oxygen, electrons may move out of the electron transport chain to cause damages. This is similar to electric leakage, and escaped electrons incur damages, as called free radical damages. Escaped electrons typically destroy every structures of the human body to incur swell, allergy and inflammation.
Furthermore, when the cells experience severe shortage of oxygen supply, the cells will close the total work of electron transport chain. The cells switch cellular respiration from "aerobic" mode into "anaerobic" mode. It means that ATP synthesis yield will drastically drop from a theoretical 38 ATP molecules per glucose down to only 2 ATP molecules per glucose. In addition, the cells in anaerobic respiration generate waste products, such as lactic acid and pyruvic acid, pollute the body and turn the body into acidity.
Based on the explanations as above, we can understand that the cells of the human body use oxygen to generate electricity and store electric power into ATP. The lack of oxygen is similar to voltage sag in electric and electronic system, not only the system cannot work steadily and stably and then cause malfunctions, also may cause system failures and damages.
The cells with electricity can electrolyze water to re-gain oxygen
Since the cells of human body can use oxygen to generate electricity, the cells with electricity can electrolyze water to produce oxygen. As shown in Fig. 4, we can setup two electrodes in an electrically conducting solution such as salt water, and add a battery to provide direct current (DC) in this circuit. Once the battery discharge electricity, we can electrolyze water to produce hydrogen and oxygen.
[Fig.4: Electrolysis of water can produce oxygen.]
Note that there are 70% percent of water in human body, also are in abundance with charged ions such as Na+,K+, Cl- ...etc (as electrolyte). Furthermore, there are many Zinc, Copper, and trace elements from foods to act as electrodes. Once cells have electricity to carry electrons, electrolysis of water can occur and oxygen will be produced.
Oxygen generates electricity, electricity produces oxygen, cells run in non-stop loop
The cells of the human body use oxygen to generate electricity in mitochondria, also the cells with electricity can electrolyze water to produce oxygen. Using oxygen to encircle a looped circulation, the cells of the human body can always run well. Similar to planetary motions, the cells of the human body can keep running in non-stop state while oxygen supply is abundant.
In view of the inertia law, an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion, we can discover deeply inside the operation principles of the human body. For examples:
1. Why a heart which stops beating will need external shock by ECG monitor to restart heartbeat?
Because a heart stops beating and become at rest state, it need energy to recover to motion state. Since the energy needed to restart a heart is too high and far beyond the body can afford, an external electric-shock from ECG monitor is necessary for.
If you take a review for all electronic devices, you are easy to find out that the initial current to startup a device is much bigger than operating current for running in operations. Since the work for changing states from rest to motion is higher than keeping states in motion, there must has more power for the work. And the power of work can be represented as following formula:
P = V x I = I2 x R
P is work
V is voltage
I is current
R is resistance
It means that higher current can get higher work. And a device always has higher initial current than operating current for propose of fulfill the work of device startup. Generally speaking, the initial current is 4 ~ 6 times than operating current in all compressors. This is why the human body cannot afford the initial current to restart the heart while the heart stops beating. Therefore, for the purpose of survival, we need sufficient oxygen supply to afford power (electricity) for the heart to run and beat in non-stop state.
2. Why people who have bad sleep with frequent awakenings would result in severe exhausted fatigue?
We use the view of electric physics to check what happened to a device suffering continuous "on-off" switching? It consumes more electric power, creates components loss, and even leads to components damages. In similarity, people in a lasting "sleep-awaken" situation make the cells of the brain in the continuous "on-off" switching. Inevitably, the cells of the brain consume highly volume of oxygen and energy, deplete oxygen supply for the body, and may cause damages in the brain and the body. The more frequent the brain switches in the night, the more exhausted the body suffers in the morning.
As describing in these examples, we should learn that once a cell turns off its biochemical reactions, there needs more energy and power to restart the reactions. So, the best policy for keeping health of the body is to keep the cells of the body continuously running in non-stop state. In other words, an abundant oxygen supply should afford for all the cells of the body to keep continuously running, and do not let any cells need to face the lack of oxygen.
The secret of rejuvenation and keeping health out of illness : Make all cells run in the auto-kinetic state
Where is the self-healing force of the body from?
The answer is the auto-kinetics of all cells' reactions in synthesizing amino acids and proteins.
Where does the immune force of the body come from?
From the auto-kinetics of lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells.
Whenever the 60 trillions of cells of the body run in auto-kinetic state, the organs of the body would operate stably and free of dysfunctions. If the oxygen supply for all the 60 trillions of cells is abundant, the body would be rejuvenation and keeps health and out of illness.
In view of the law of inertia, we know that only few powers can sustain a system running in motion. But while a system stops, there need more powers to restart system for running. Similarly, an abundant oxygen supply is the best way of keeping auto-kinetics of cell physiology. The cells can continuously operate in the loop of oxygen generating electricity and electricity electrolyzing water to reproduce oxygen. Once there is an oxygen deficiency to tear down the auto-kinetic operations of a cell, there will request more oxygen supply to rebuild the auto-kinetics of the cells. Accordingly, an oxygen deficiency leads to a worse state, and causes a series of viciously chained reactions in hypoxia.
So, the secret of sustaining a healthy body is the same of planetary motions in the sky: To supply abundant oxygen for the 60 trillions of cells and never let any cell experience the lack of oxygen.